Launch of Chandrayaan-3: ISRO Proposes a Gentle Landing with the Payloads RAMBHA and ILSA

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India’s ambitious Chandrayaan-3 lunar project was undertaken on 14 July 2023 with the goal of achieving a unique accomplishment in moon exploration previously only accomplished by countries like the US, China, and the erstwhile Soviet Union. Ritu Karidhal Shrivastava, an Indian rocket lady, is in charge of the mission. Chandrayaan 3, the much-anticipated third lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 15 years, launched from Sriharikota on board the organisation’s most recent heavy lift launch vehicle, the “Fat Boy” LVM3-M4.

Highlights Of Chandrayaan-3 Launch

  • Soon after 2:30 p.m. local time (5 a.m. ET), Chandrayaan—which is Sanskrit for “moon vehicle”—launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, southern Andhra Pradesh.
  • More than 1 million people watched the historic launch online in addition to the large crowds that assembled at the space centre. Later on Friday, the Indian Space Research Organisation announced through Twitter that Chandrayaan-3 is in “precise orbit” and has “begun its journey to the moon.”
  • The spacecraft’s health is described as “normal” in the addition.
  • A new chapter in India’s space voyage is scripted by Chandrayaan-3, the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted in response “It soars high, elevating the dreams and ambitions of every Indian. This momentous achievement is a testament to our scientists’ relentless dedication. I salute their spirit and ingenuity!”

India’s Third Moon Mission: Chandrayaan-3

On July 14, 2023, at 9:05:17 UT (2:35 p.m. India Standard Time), Chandrayaan 3 was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, India, aboard a GSLV Mark 3 (LVM 3) heavy lift launch vehicle into an orbit that is roughly 170 x 36,500 km elliptic for Earth parking. Ritu Karidhal Shrivastava, an Indian rocket lady, is in charge of the mission. To get it to the Moon, a series of manoeuvres will come after this. The lander/rover will be sent into a 100 km circular polar lunar orbit by the propulsion module, which will separate in August. The lander and rover will then make contact with the lunar surface near 69.37 S and 32.35 E, in the south polar area. 

The date of the first down is currently set for August 23 or 24. The intended touchdown velocity is less than 2 m/s vertically and 0.5 m/s horizontally. In order to maintain connectivity with Earth, the propulsion module/communications relay satellite will stay in lunar orbit. A backup relay will also be deployed, and that is Chandrayaan 2. The lander and rover are intended to function for one lunar day (about 14 days on Earth).

Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2 to demonstrate end-to-end capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface. It consists of Lander and Rover configuration.  It will also make a number of scientific measurements on the surface and from orbit. It comprises a lander/rover and a propulsion module. The lander/rover will be similar to the Vikram rover on Chandrayaan 2, with improvements to help ensure a safe landing. It will be carried to lunar orbit by the propulsion module which will remain in orbit around the Moon and act as a communications relay satellite.

What is Lander and Rover Payloads Configuration 

Lander payloads include the Langmuir Probe (LP), Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE), Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA), and Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE), which measures thermal conductivity and temperature. For lunar laser ranging investigations, space agency NASA has provided a passive Laser Retroreflector Array. Whereas on the other hand Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) are rover payloads that are used to determine the elemental composition close to the landing site.

Design and Structure of Chandrayaan-3 

The Chandrayaan-3 is an unmanned mission with the objective of making a soft and safe landing on the Lunar surface. This is India’s third unmanned mission. With the aim of researching and showcasing new technology necessary for interplanetary missions, Chandrayaan-3 is made up of an indigenous Lander module (LM), Propulsion module (PM), and Rover. The Lander will be able to soft land at a chosen location on the moon and release the Rover, which will conduct in-situ chemical analysis of the lunar surface while it is moving. 

■ Also Read: Revisiting Kalpana Chawla’s Life, First Indian Woman into Space

There are scientific payloads on the Lander and the Rover that will conduct lunar surface tests. The main job of PM is to transport the LM from injection into the launch vehicle to the final 100 km circular polar orbit of the moon and then to release the LM from PM. In addition, the Propulsion Module features a research payload as a value addition that will be used when the Lander Module separates. The launch vehicle for Chandrayaan-3 is the GSLV-Mk3, which will place the integrated module in an elliptical parking orbit (EPO) measuring approximately 170 by 36500 kilometers.

Spacecraft and Subsystems of Chandrayaan 3

  • The propulsion module is a box-like structure (modified 1-3K structure) with one large solar panel mounted on one side and a large cylinder on top (the Intermodule Adapter Cone) that acts as a mounting structure for the lander.
  • The main thruster nozzle is on the bottom.
  • Communications is via S-Band and attitude sensors include a star sensor, Sun sensor, and Inertail Reference unit and Accelerometer Package (IRAP).
  • The Vikram (named after Indian space program pioneer Vikram Sarabhai) lander is also generally box-shaped (200x 200 x 116.6 cm), with four landing legs and four landing thrusters.
  • 86 kg, including 26 kg for the rover, and can generate 738 W using side-mounted solar panels.
  • The lander has a number of sensors to ensure a safe touchdown, including an accelerometer, altimeters (Ka-band and laser), Doppler velocimeter, star sensors, inclinometer, touchdown sensor, and a suite of cameras for hazard avoidance and positional knowledge.
  • Reaction wheels are used for attitude control, and propulsion is provided by a MMH and MON3 bipropellant system with four 800 N throttleable engines and eight 58 N throttleable engines.
  • An X-band antenna is used for communications.
  • The lander carries the rover in a compartment with a ramp for deployment onto the surface.
  • It has navigation cameras and a solar panel that can generate 50 W.
  • It communicates directly with the lander via Rx/Tx antennas.
  • The Vikram lander will carry an instrument called Chandra`s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) to measure surface thermal properties, the Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) to measure seismicity around the landing site, the Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere (RAMBHA) to study the gas and plasma environment, and a passive laser retroreflector array provided by NASA for lunar ranging studies.
  • The Pragyan rover will carry two instruments to study the local surface elemental composition, an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS).
  • The Propulsion Module / Orbiter will carry one experiment called the Spectropolarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) to study Earth from lunar orbit.

The goals of Chandrayaan-3’s Mission are:

  • To show Safe and Soft Landing on the Surface of the Moon
  • To showcase roving lunar rover technology
  • To carry out in-situ scientific research.

Several cutting-edge technologies, including those listed below, are present in Lander to help with mission goals.

  • Altimeters: Laser & RF based Altimeters
  • Velocimeters: Laser Doppler Velocimeter & Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera
  • Inertial Measurement: Laser Gyro based Inertial referencing and Accelerometer package
  • Propulsion System: 800N Throttleable Liquid Engines, 58N attitude thrusters & Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
  • Navigation, Guidance & Control (NGC): Powered Descent Trajectory design and associate software elements
  • Hazard Detection and Avoidance: Lander Hazard Detection & Avoidance Camera and Processing Algorithm
  • Landing Leg Mechanism

Decades of Hard Work in Successful Launch of Chandrayaan 3 

India’s space programme extends back more than six decades, to when it was a freshly formed republic and a very impoverished country recovering from a brutal division.

When Iran launched its first rocket into space in 1963, the country was no match for the ambitions of the United States and the erstwhile Soviet Union, which were far ahead in the space race.

India is now the world’s most populated country and fifth-largest economy. It has a thriving young population and is home to a rising innovation and technology centre. 

For years, Indian engineers have been working on the launch. They hope to land Chandrayaan-3 near the difficult terrain of the moon’s undiscovered South Pole.

Chandrayaan-1, India’s first lunar mission, detected water molecules on the moon’s surface. The Chandrayaan-2 successfully entered lunar orbit eleven years later, but its rover crashed-landed on the moon’s surface. It, too, was tasked with exploring the moon’s South Pole.

India’s aspirations for space have been playing catch-up.

India launched the Mangalyaan spacecraft into orbit around Mars in 2014, becoming the first Asian country to do so. The mission cost $74 million to launch, less than the $100 million Hollywood spent on the space drama “Gravity.”

  1. India set a record by launching 104 satellites in one operation three years later.
  2. India claimed to have shot down one of its own satellites in an alleged anti-satellite test in 2019, making it one of only four nations to have done so, according to Modi in a rare broadcast address.
  3. In the same year, India’s previous head of ISRO, Kailasavadivoo Sivan, stated that the country intended to launch a space station by 2030. 
  4. The International Space Station, a multinational project, and China’s Tiangong Space Station are the only space stations currently accessible to expedition crews.
  5. Space technology has become one of India’s hottest investment industries due to its rapid development and innovation, and foreign leaders seem to have taken notice.
  6. The White House stated that when Modi and US President Joe Biden met in Washington last month on a state visit, they both desired greater cooperation in the space sector.
  7. Additionally, India has space aspirations beyond the moon and Mars. Additionally, ISRO has suggested sending an orbiter to Venus.

Only an Enlightened Saint Can Elucidate the Structure of the Universe. 

The current advancements in science and technology have allowed human civilization to reach the moon and Mars.  As a result of scientists’ ongoing exploration, life is also being found on distant planets.  However, human society is still unable to fully comprehend and have influence over the universe’s structure, beginning, and conclusion. We still have many difficult questions to answer, such as how the cosmos came into existence and who created each of us.  You’ll be astonished to learn that there are 21 other universes like ours where we currently reside in the domain of Kaal Brahm.   

In our sacred scriptures like the Holy Bhagavad Gita Ji, four Vedas, Quran, and Bible, which can only be understood by an Enlightened Saint, the information of all the aforementioned questions that are beyond the scope of science is clearly described.  The only Enlightened Saint currently educating the entire human race about the universe’s Creation in accordance with all religious texts is Jagat Guru Sant Rampal Ji Maharaj.  To learn many unknown facts about the universe, read Nature’s Creation in the holy book Gyan Ganga.

FAQ REGARDING CHANDRAYAAN -3 

Question 1 : From what location was ISRO Chandrayaan-3 launched?

On July 14, at 2:35 p.m., a Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM-3) rocket carrying India’s Chandrayaan-3 moon mission successfully lifted off from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.

Question 2: When will Chandrayaan-3 touch down on the moon?

Prior to arriving on the surface of the moon later in August, the Chandrayaan-3 will travel for just under a month. According to the ISRO director, Chandrayaan 3 will make a soft landing on August 23 at 5:47 p.m.

Question:3 Is the Chandrayaan-3 manned mission? 

The Chandrayaan-3 is an unmanned mission with the goal of performing a soft and secure lunar surface landing. India’s third unmanned mission is now underway.

Question 4 : Is Chandrayaan-1 Successful?

On October 22, 2008, Chandrayaan-1, India’s first lunar mission, was successfully launched from SDSC SHAR in Sriharikota. For chemical, mineralogical, and photographic mapping of the Moon, the spacecraft was orbiting the Moon at a distance of 100 km from the surface.

Question 5 : Who is in charge of the mission Chandrayaan-3? 

Six payloads, including a lander, rover, and propulsion module, are aboard Chandrayaan 3. Ritu Karidhal Shrivastava, an Indian rocket lady, is in charge of the mission.

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