Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle and water buffalo that causes relatively low mortality; however, this disease can lead to animal welfare problems and significant production losses. The disease is mainly spread by biting insects, such as some types of flies, mosquitoes, and possibly ticks.
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): Highlight
- LSD is a contagious viral infection that infects cattle
- It causes fever and, nodules on the skin, and sometimes lead to death
- Around 1.6 million cattle were infected in 197 districts due to LSD
- 90,000 cattle have died due to LSD till last week
- LSD is a contagious viral infection that has 47 virus variants found in India
- ICAR develops vaccines and transfers technology for commercial production
- Sat-Bhakti is a permanent remedy
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): Why is Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in the News?
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a contagious viral infection that infects cattle to increase body temperature, and nodules on the skin, and sometimes lead to death. The cattle infected due to LSD are estimated at around 1.6 million and 90,000 have lost their lives till last week. LSD first started in Rajasthan and Gujarat and then quickly spread to many states across the nation. LSD is present in cattles in Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujrat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
What is Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD)?
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle and buffalo caused by the Capripox virus of the Poxviridae family. The disease is characterized by a mild fever for 2-3 days followed by the development of hard, round skin nodules (2-5 cm in diameter) on the skin all over the body. These nodules are circumscribed, firm, round, and raised and involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and sometimes muscle.
Symptoms can include lesions in the mouth, pharynx and respiratory tract, emaciation, enlarged lymph nodes, swelling of the limbs, reduced milk production, miscarriage, infertility, and sometimes death. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Institute of Genomic and Integrative Biology scientists confirmed that the lumpy skin disease transmission is due to a contagious virus that has 47 variants in the country. ICAR- NISHAD, Bhopal has the full testing facility to confirm suspected LSD cases.
How is LSD Transmitted?
Lumpy skin disease is primarily spread among animals by biting insects (vectors) such as mosquitoes and biting flies, ticks, lice, and wasps along with contaminated food and water.
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): What are LSD Symptoms?
It primarily consists of fever, fluid discharge from the eyes and nose, saliva dripping from the mouth, and blisters on the body. The animal stops eating and faces problems in chewing or eating, which leads to a decrease in milk production.
What is the Effect of LSD?
Although infected animals often recover within 2-3 weeks, milk yield in lactating cattle is reduced for several weeks. Morbidity is around 10-20% and mortality is around 1-5%.
How to Detect Suspicious Cattle?
Clinical surveillance of the susceptible cattle population for nodular skin lesions should be carried out along with the recording of morbidity and mortality data in suspected LSD areas. Monthly clinical follow-up data should be reported to the DAHD in the prescribed format. Sample submissions from representative samples of clinically affected animals (EDTA blood and skin biopsies/scabs) from suspected LSD outbreak animals should be sent to ICAR-NIHSAD, Bhopal for laboratory testing.
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): Indian Government Issues An Advisory
Upmanyu Basu, Joint Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries Animal Husbandry & Dairying, Government of India issued an advisory on September 02, 2022. The advisory suggests measures for prevention and control:
- Immediate isolation of sick/infected animals from healthy animals
- No animal suspected of having febrile nodular skin disease should be placed on an unaffected holding or farm
- In affected villages and farms with animals, the affected animal should be kept separate from the unaffected animals by avoiding common grazing and thus direct contact.
- Efforts should be made to reduce the vector population in affected areas. An unaffected animal should be treated with an insect repellent (ticks, flies, mosquitoes, fleas, gnats) to minimize mechanical transmission of LSD
- Ensure strict control of the movement of animals from affected areas to free areas and local animal markets
- Trade in live cattle and participation in fairs and exhibitions should be prohibited immediately after confirmation of infection in affected areas.
- All biosecurity measures and strict hygiene measures should be observed for disposal of personal protective equipment (PPE) etc. used in sampling from affected animals
- Livestock markets located within 10 km of the epicenter of the infection should be closed
- Thorough cleaning and disinfection of affected personnel, premises, and contaminated environment including vehicles passing through affected animal farms should be carried out with appropriate chemicals/disinfectants [ether (20%), chloroform, formalin (1%), phenol (2%/15 minutes ), sodium hypochlorite (2–3%), iodine compounds (1:33 dilution), quaternary ammonium compounds (0.5%)].
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): Bovine Semen Can Be Infected
- Semen should not be collected and processed for the production and distribution of frozen bovine semen from animals showing clinical signs of LSD
- Blood and semen from affected and clinically obtained animals shall be subjected to PCR detection of the causative agent with negative results prior to use for AI/natural service.
Awareness Campaign is Necessary to Avoid New Infections
An information campaign must be carried out regarding the clinical signs and production losses due to LSD. As soon as suspected cases are recorded, the veterinary authority should be reported immediately.
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): GOI Suggests the Therapy
A. Sick animals should be kept in isolation
b. Symptomatic treatment of affected animals can be carried out after consultation with a veterinarian
C. Administration of antibiotics for 5-7 days to control secondary infection may be considered on a case-by-case basis to control secondary bacterial infection.
d. Administration of an anti-inflammatory and antihistamine may also be considered.
E. Paracetamol can be given in case of pyrexia
F. Application of an antiseptic ointment with fly repellent properties is recommended on eroded skin
G. Parenteral / oral multivitamins are recommended.
h. Liquid diet, soft feed and forage, and succulent pasture are recommended for infected animals.
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD): Disposal of carcasses of animals affected by LSD
In the event of death, animal carcasses should be disposed of by deep burial.
India Needs 180-200 Million Indigenous Lumpy Vaccine Doses
As per estimation, the cattle population is around 193 million in India. To completely cover this population the country will require around 180-200 million indigenous lumpy vaccine doses. ICAR’s Deputy Director-General (Animal Sciences) BN Tripathi says a minimum of 80 percent vaccination is required to achieve herd immunity. Unlike Africa, where the disease took decades to eliminate, there is a need to include the Lumpy vaccines in the country’s regular animal diseases protection program.
ICAR Develops Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine
ICAR claims that the domestic vaccine, ‘Lumpi-ProVacind’ is safe. A single dose of the vaccine contains 103.5 TCID50 of live-attenuated LSDV (Ranchi strain). The homologous live-attenuated LSD vaccines develop immunity that lasts for one year. Lumpi-ProVacind induces LSDV-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune response. LSD provides complete protection against lethal LSDV challenges. The vaccine is used for the prophylactic immunization of animals against Lumpy Skin Disease. ICAR has applied for a patent for the technology.
ICAR All Set to Transfer Technology for Commercial Production
The premier research organization Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) has entered into an agreement with Bangalore-based company Biovet Private Ltd. ICAR will supply technology for the commercial production of the indigenous vaccine of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) called ‘Lumpi-ProVacind’.
Agrinnovate, the commercial arm of ICAR, has lined up for a grant of non-exclusive license of ‘Lumpi-ProVacind’. Hester Biosciences Ltd, Indian Immunological Ltd (IIL), an arm of NDDB, Haryana Veterinary Vaccine Institute, and some other organizations in Maharashtra may enter into an agreement with ICAR for the manufacture of vaccines.
ICAR’s National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE) at Hisar, Haryana, and the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) at Izatnagar, have jointly developed Lumpi-ProVacInd. The vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine, like those used against tuberculosis, measles, mumps, and rubella.
Is it safe to drink milk from cattle infected with LSD?
The disease does not affect humans as it is a non-zoonotic infection and is not transmissible from animals to humans, a senior Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) official told PTI recently.
Ashok Kumar Mohanty, who is the joint director of IVRI, said there is no impact on the safety and quality of milk from infected cattle, which is safe to consume. He also stated that there is no problem with the quality, regardless of whether it is consumed after cooking or without cooking.
However, the infection can affect milk production in cattle. Depending on the severity of the disease and the animal’s level of immunity, milk production may decrease. This can have a local impact on milk production. The animal becomes weak due to LSD infection and due to the formation of nodules, fever, and other symptoms, said Mohanty.
However, this impact on milk production in infected cattle can be reduced by vaccination. Without vaccination, the first infection can end up reducing the milk production of cattle by 40-50 percent, the IVRI official added.
The readers should know that Karnataka- based brand Nandhini and Gujrat-based brand Amul procure 85 LLPD and 215 LLPD respectively. The outbreak has also hit milk production, which has fallen by more than 20 percent in Rajasthan.
What is a Permanent Remedy?
The bovine and its owners both are in trouble. Srimad Bhagvad Gita says as you sow so you reap. But how to eliminate the effect of past karmas by devotion? Yes, it is possible by adopting Sat-Bhakti from enlightened Sant Rampal Ji Maharaj. Take refuge at the lotus feet of Sant Rampal Ji Maharaj and achieve worldly happiness and attain salvation. For learning more, download Sant Ramal Ji Maharaj App and learn Sat-Gyan.